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WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF BIRTH DEFECTS OF HEART

Exact reason nobody knows. Known reasons are interfamily marriages, drugs and chemicals intake during pregnancy,certain viral infections like Rubella,old age of mother,smoking of mother,etc


WHAT ARE THE COMMON BIRTH DEFECTS

ASD(atrial septal defect),VSD(ventricular septal defect),TOF(Tetrology of Fallot),TGA(Transposition of Great Vessels), Single ventricle, Tricuspid atresia, Ebstein anomaly.

WHAT ARE THE COMMON SYMPTOMS OF BIRTH DEFECTS

Distress at birth, difficulty in breathing, difficulty in breathing, blue color of skin ,tongue,fingertips,failure to thrive
HOW SERIOUS ARE THE BIRTH DEFECTS ?

Some can be quiet harmless while others can be quiet dangerous to life. Some perhaps need no treatment while others cant live without correction. While some others are non correctable.

WHAT ARE BLUE BABIES ?

Babies with certain birth defects like Tetrology of Fallot, Pulmonary Atresia, Tranposition of Great Vessels will have hampered oxygenation of blood which is the primary function of heart and lung.
This is due to insufficient blood reachin the blood  or mixing up of oxygenated and non oxygenated blood through various abnormal connections or holes. These babies cant live long, their growth suffers and die early.


IS THERE ANY CATEGORISATION OF DEFECTS ?

Septal weaknesses

Valvestenoses

valve leaks

Abnormal connections

Inadequate growth of certain rooms of heart


SEPTAL DEFECTS


This defect is a hole in the septum, the wall that splits the heart. Here are two forms of septal failings: 

Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are holes in the septum among the left and the right atria; 

Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are holes in the septum among the left and right ventricles.

Valve defects


MALFUNCTIONING OF VALVES


Stenosis — the valve is not capable to open totally. As an outcome, the heart has to effort stiffer to push blood through it.

Regurgitation — the valve does not close by properly and lets blood to leak backward.

Atresia — the valve is lost the hole for the blood to pass through. This is measured a more multifarious defect.

Pulmonary valve stenosis is the most communal valve defect. In this weakness, the flaps of the pulmonary valve don’t work correctly ,they are too dense, or they develop stiff, or even fuse together, creating it problematic for the blood to flow to the lung through the pulmonary artery.

Children who have a pulmonary valve stenosis might have a heart murmur, an uneven sound caught through a heartbeat. Children who are born with a severe pulmonary valve stenosis could have such indications as tiredness, breathing difficulties, and anxiety eating.

Stenosis can also mark the aortic valve. If this valve cannot open or close correctly, blood possibly will leakage or pool. This can rise pressure on the heart and root heart damage.


LESS COMMON CONGENITAL DEFECTS


Coarctation of the aorta — This defect occurs when the aorta constricts and avoids blood from flowing easily to the minor part of the body. 

Complete atrioventricular canal defect (CAVC) — The heart has a hole in entirely four chambers in the spot where the chambers would usually be separated. Indications may not seem till the baby is numerous weeks old; babies may have distress breathing, eating, and developing.

D-transposition of the great arteries — The locations of the pulmonary artery and the aorta are overturned. The blood flow to one or the other the body or the lungs is disturbed.

Ebstein’s anomaly — The tricuspid valve does not effort as it should and lets blood to leak back into the higher chambers of the heart from the lesser driving chambers. This failing often happens along with an ASD

Single ventricle defects — These contain hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia/whole ventricular septum, and tricuspid atresia.

Tetralogy of Fallot — This blemish syndicates four problems:

a ventricular septal fault;

pulmonary stenosis

right ventricular hypertrophy .

the aorta is in the wrong position .

Surgery is desirable to make accurate this defect.

Total anomalous pulmonary venous linking — The veins from the lungs attach to the heart in the incorrect place and let oxygenated blood keen on the wrong heart chamber.

Truncus arteriosis — This defect happens when there is one large artery in its place of the normal two distinct ones to convey blood to the body and the lungs.


MANAGEMENT OF BIRTH DEFECTS OF HEART


For children who have a heart fault that must be cured, there are two main choices:

Catheter treatment

it is much relaxed for the child to go through than operation. In its place of opening the body with a slit as in surgery, the doctor marks a small cut in the skin and pull-outs a catheter into the body from side to side an artery or vein.

To treat pulmonary valve stenosis, the catheter is armed with a minor balloon that is bloated at the pulmonary valve in order to isolate the bonded leaflets.

Open heart surgery

In circumstances where the heart fault cannot be treated with a catheter, the child may want open heart surgery.

In these circumstances, the pediatric heart doctor releases the chest and functions openly on the heart to heal the defect. This kind of treatment is generally done for more severe heart defects.

By and large smaller of these defects can be treated by catheters while more complex ones need highly specialised surgeries to enable him or her for a normal life

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Contact Info

Dr.Kuldeep Kumar Chulliparambil
Renai Medicity,
Kochin
Palarivattom P.O.
Kerala
Pin: 682025
ckkkuldeep@yahoo.com
09961014446
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