It is named cardiac transplantation, as it spares of a patient's diseased or damaged heart with a strong donor heart.
Heart transplantation is done on patients with end-stage heart disease or some other dangerous heart condition. Earlier a doctor endorses heart replacement for a patient, once all other conceivable treatments for his or her disease have been tried. The discision of heart transplantation is to lengthen the life of a person who would or else expire from heart failure. Maximum patients who have recieved a new heart were so sick before transplantation that they could not live a usual life. Switching a patient's unhealthy heart with a healthy working donor heart frequently lets the receiver to return to normal daily doings.
These circumstances are contraindications for heart replacement:
long-lasting lung syndrome with loss of lung function
not curable liver or kidney infection
diabetes that has produced serious harm to internal organs
sickness of the blood vessels in the brain
severe disease of the veins
psychological sickness or any situation that would make a patient incapable to take the required medications on schedule
ongoing alcohol or drug misuse
Patients with end-stage heart disease unresponsive to medical treatment may be deliberated for heart transplantation. Many kinds of tests are done, blood tests, x rays, and checks of heart, lung, and other organ function. The outcomes of these tests help the doctors identify how severe the heart disease is and whether or not the patient is fit enough to withstand the transplant surgery.
The transplant procedure
Common anesthesia is delivered by an anesthesiologist knowledgeable with cardiac patients.
Antibiotics will avoid bacterial wound infections.
The patient is placed on a heart/lung machine, which achieves the functions of the heart and lungs by pumping the blood to the rest of the body throughout surgery.
After the donor heart was brought to the operating room, the patient's unhealthy heart is removed.
The donor heart is linked with patient's blood vessels, containing the entrance(s), pulmonic artery, and aorta.
After the blood vessels are linked, the fresh heart is perfused with the patient's blood and initiates beating. If the heart does not activate to beat directly, the surgeon may use defibrillation to gain a creative rhythm.
The patient is engaged off the heart-lung machine.
The new heart is inspired to keep a regular beat with medicines and/or a pacemaker for two to five days afterward surgery, till the new heart take roles usually on its own.
Before patients are put on the transplant waiting list, their blood category is identified so that a well-matched donor heart can be found.
A panel reactive antibodies (PRA) test is also completed earlier to heart transplantation. This test states doctors whether or not the patient is at great risk for having a hyperacute response to a donor heart.
Although waiting for heart transplantation, patients are given treatment to retain the heart as vigorous as possible. They are frequently tested to make sure the heart is pumping sufficient blood. Intravenous prescriptions may be used to progress cardiac output. If these drugs are not working, an intra-aortic balloon pump or ventricular-assist device can sustain cardiac output till a donor heart befits obtained.