WHAT IS HEART FAILURE ?
Heart is said to be failing when it is unable to pump enough blood for the body either in its resting or more active physiological states. This lead to a variety of pathological changes in the body. Heart can fail either on left, right or both. All these types have varied pathologies and symptom states. When both the sides fail , it is commonly referred to as congestive heart failure.
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF HEART FAILURE ?
Boadly these are right and left heart failures. Left heart failure can again be divided into systolic and diastolic heart failures.
Depending on the duration it can be acute or chronic.
Another description is compensated heart failure or non compensated heart failure.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF HEART FAILURE ?
CAUSES OF LEFT HEART FAILURE
Systolic heart failure is when forward ejection from the heart fails. Thia may be due to loss of musle in the left ventricle or an obstruction in the forward flow like Aortic stenosis or mitral stenosis.
DIASTOLIC HEART FAILURE
In the diastolic heart failure , there is loss of compliace of the left ventricle in diastoic filling leading to build up of pressure inside it in this phase of heart contraction and eventual high build up of pressure in the heart chamber behind,which is left atria and the consequent lung congestion.
CAUSES OF RIGHT HEART FAILURE
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF HEART FAILURE ?
Acute heart failure can severely compromise the blood supply to vital organs like brain, kidney and liver in addition to compromising oxygenation in the lungs due to lack of forward blood flow from the lungs. In severest states this can be a cause of death.
In less acute cases, lack of adequate blood supply to vital organs results in fatigue, syncopial attacks, limitation of physical activities. May be breathless due to permanently congested lung fields. Breathlessness at the smallest of physical activities can progress to breathlessness at rest or while even lying down.
WHAT ARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF HEART FAILURE ?
Can lead to lung congestion, chronic kidney impaiment, chronic liver malfuntion, pulmonary hypertention,etc
HOW HEART FAILURE IS DIAGNOSED ?
By a combination of symptom analysis, ecg, echocardiogram, MRI scanning , biochemical tests and coronary angiogram.
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR HEART FAILURE ?